Exploration History

Nepheline syenites in the Levaya Mama River valley were first discovered and described by V.G. Ditmar during a geological study of the northern spurs of the Baikal folded region in the 30s of the last century. In 1959-1960 A.Ya. Zhidkov (A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute) identified the North Baikal alkaline province, which includes more than 10 different-sized intrusive bodies, and the largest of them is the Synnyr massif of alkaline and felspatoid syenites. The first geological map of the massif was compiled and the features of its internal structure were determined. In 1962-1963 a geological survey of the massif and adjacent areas was carried out at a scale of 1: 50 000 by the North Baikal expedition of Buryatgeology (N.F. Bainov, V.P. Bushuev, V.G. Filatov and others). Numerous apatite occurrences were revealed inside the Synnyr massif and in the metasomatite near-contact zone.

In 1964-1965 Buryatgeology (A.S. Pak and others) and the Kola Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences conducted geological surveys at a scale of 1: 25 000 on the most prospecting sites and also apatite and rare-metal mineralization exploration, which did not lead to any significant results. At the same time, thanks to the A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute case studies (A.Ya.Zhidkov), unique ultra-potassium syenites (called synnyrites) were discovered and the areas of their maximum distribution were described. In the seventies, at the initiative of A.Ya. Zhidkov studies to assess the prospective possibility of processing synnyrites as a complex potash-alumina raw material began and were conducted by the Institute of Chemistry of Solids and Mineral Resources (Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences) , the Russian National Aluminum-Magnesium Institute, Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources. From 1979 to 1986 during the North Baikal expedition of the production geological association “Buryatgeologiya” (A.A. Ushakov and others) prospecting and evaluation works on the Synnyr massif within the Kalyumnoe site were carried out. They allowed outlining the main ore bodies of the synnyrites and determining the inferred resources of the deposit. At the same time, a detailed study of the geology and material composition of ultra-potassium rocks was carried out by G.V. Andreev  in 1981, L.I. Panina in 1981 and 1983, A.Ya. Zhidkov and S.A. Smyslov in 1982, 1985 and 1988. Then, unfortunately, due to a general reduction of allocations for geological exploration, in the late 80s almost all research in this field was stopped. The resumption of the synnyrites study became possible only after three decades.

First traverse

P.I.PREOBRAZhENSKII. GeolCom. Made a route through the Levaya Mama basin. He noted nepheline syenites, but described them as a complex of granites.

The first mention of nephelite syenites

V.G. DITMAR. Central Geological Research Institute for Nonferrous and Precious Metals. The first reliable mentioning/mention of nepheline syenites in the Levaya Mama basin. He associated nepheline syenites with gradational contacts of granitoid formations.

1956 - 57
The first mentions of calsilite syenites - synnyrites

A.Ya. ZHIDKOV. A.P. KARPINSKY RUSSIAN GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE – DISCOVERER OF SYNNYRITES. The first geological map of the massif compilation at a scale of 1:100 000, determined the main features of its geological structure and reconstructed the history of the development. First discovered in nature and described ultra-potassium (16.5-20.0% K2O) calsilite and calsilite-nepheline syenites, called synnyrites.

1960 - 61
The first geological surveys

A.S. PAK., A.G. KRAPIVIN., V.N. BELOKOPYTOV. THE NORTH BAIKAL EXPEDITION. Geological survey of the Synnyr massif at the scale of 1: 200 000 was carried out.

1962 - 63
New geological surveys

A.G.KRAPIVIN., I.F.BAINOV., Zh.Ts.BABUEV., V.P.BUShUEV., N.A.MIKOV., S.N.LAGEREV. THE NORTH BAYKAL EXPEDITION. A team of geologists in the area of the Synnyr massif conducted a geological survey at a scale of 1:50 000. Apatite-bearing areas were outlined.

1964 - 65
New geological surveys

A.S. PAK, V.G. FILATOV, NORTH BAYKAL EXPEDITION; S.I. ZAK, “KOLFAN”. Conducting geological surveys at a scale of 1:25 000 at prospective apatite-bearing areas.

1963 - 89
Scientific work on the study of the Synnyr massif

A.Ya.ZhIDKOV, G.V.ANDREEV, S.A.SMYSLOV, V.P.KOSTYUK, V.V. ARKhANGEL’SKAYA, L.I.PANINA. During this period, numerous articles and monographs were published. They were devoted to the geological and structural compositions of the rocks of the Synnyr massif, based on thematic expeditions and the works of the authors.

1967 - 78
Studies evaluating the processing of synnyrites

Institute of Chemistry of Solids and Mineral Resources (Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences), Russian National Aluminum-Magnesium Institute, Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources and other industry organizations. Development of various technological schemes with the production of alumina and potassium-containing products from synnyrites.

1979 - 86
Prospecting and evaluation works

A.A. USHAKOV, A.Ya. ZHIDKOV, S.I. MOROZOV. THE NORTH BAIKAL EXPEDITION. Conducting prospecting and evaluation works of complex potash-alumina ores within the Synnyr alkaline massif.

Expedition "ERCOSPLAN"

An expedition of ERCOSPLAN specialists accompanied by the company “Foundation for development of national geology” in order to find out more about the site of future work.

OOO “Baikal Nedra Geo”

Registration of OOO “Baikal Nedra Geo” and obtaining a license for geological exploration on the Kalumnoye subsurface site.

First exploration works

Conducting the first stage of geological exploration by the company OOO “Baikal Nedra Geo”.

Saint-Petersburg, Russia
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